National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP), Minnesota, 2015, Digital Orthorectified Images (DOQ)

This page last updated: 03/04/2016
Metadata created using Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines

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1. Overview
2. Data Quality
3. Data Organization
4. Coordinate System
5. Attributes
6. Distribution - Get Data
7. Metadata Reference

Section 1 Overview
Originator U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO)
Title National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP), Minnesota, 2015, Digital Orthorectified Images (DOQ)
Abstract This data set contains 4-band natural color and false color infrared imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP program is to enable availability of ortho imagery within one year of acquisition.

The source files are 1 meter ground sample distance (GSD) ortho imagery rectified to a horizontal accuracy of within +/- 5 meters of reference digital ortho quarter quads (DOQQ's) from the National Digital Ortho Program (NDOP) or from NAIP. The tiling format of NAIP imagery is based on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 meter buffer on all four sides. NAIP imagery is formatted to the UTM coordinate system using NAD83. NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.

The natural color county mosaic files downloadable from the USDA NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway were generated by compressing NAIP imagery that cover the county extent. MrSID compression was used. Target values for the compression ratio are 15:1.

(Note: The Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo) has created this metadata record to describe the entire NAIP 2015 dataset, using information from Farm Service Agency metadata. Each natural color county file available from the USDA NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway is accompanied by the original FSA metadata for that county.)
Purpose NAIP imagery is typically available for distribution within 60 days of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit boundaries and other data sets. The 1 meter NAIP imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in cooperation with state government and other federal agencies who use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use planning and natural resource assessment. NAIP is also used for disaster response often providing the most current pre-event imagery.
Time Period of Content Date 2015
Currentness Reference Summer and Fall 2015. See the IDATE attribute in the accompanying seamline shapefile for each county to find out the date(s) that the source imagery was acquired. The shapefiles are included with the MrSID county mosaics downloadable from NRCS. All the seamline shapefiles for Minnesota's 87 counties may also be downloaded in one zipfile from MnGeo's website. For more information, see:
Progress Complete
Maintenance and Update Frequency Irregular
Spatial Extent of Data Minnesota
Bounding Coordinates -97.5
Place Keywords Minnesota, MN
Theme Keywords imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, Digital Orthorectified Image, Digital Orthophoto Quad, Ortho, Orthophoto, DOQ, NAIP, Compliance, Air Photo, Air Photography, Aerial Photo, Aerial Photography
Theme Keyword Thesaurus ISO 19115 Topic Category
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints The Aerial Photography Field Office asks to be credited in derived products.

If defects are found in the NAIP imagery during the warranty period such as horizontal offsets, replacement imagery may be provided. Imagery containing defects that require the acquisition of new imagery, such as excessive cloud cover, specular reflectance, etc., will not be replaced within a NAIP project year.

Redistribution conditions: In obtaining this data from MnGeo, it is understood that you and/or your organization have the right to use it for any purpose. If you modify it, you are encouraged to apply responsible best practices by documenting those changes in a metadata record. If you transmit or provide the data to another user, it is your responsibility to provide appropriate content, limitation, warranty and liability information as you see fit.
Contact Person Information ,
USDA-FSA-APFO Aerial Photography Field Office
2222 West 2300 South
Salt Lake City, UT  84119
Phone: 801-844-2922
Fax: 801-956-3653
Browse Graphic Click to view a data sample.
Graphic showing the entire state
Associated Data Sets Shapefiles, with associated metadata, are included with the compressed county mosaic datasets downloadable from the USDA NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway. The shapefiles show seamline polygons delineating the boundary between DOQQ imagery used in the creation of the county NAIP file and attributes such as the source date of the imagery. All the seamline shapefiles for Minnesota's 87 counties may also be downloaded in one zipfile from MnGeo's website. For more information, see:

For information on other air photos available for Minnesota, including other years of NAIP imagery, see

Section 2 Data Quality
Attribute Accuracy NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.

Imagery shows marked color differences between areas flown at different dates. For example, an area flown during the growing season in August will appear very green; it could be adjacent to an area flown in October after harvest which appears mostly brown. See the preview graphic:

Logical Consistency N/A
Completeness No report
Horizontal Positional Accuracy FSA Digital Orthophoto Specs. The quarter-quad files are 1 meter ground sample distance (GSD) ortho imagery rectified to a horizontal accuracy of within 6 meters of absolute ground control ("true ground") rather than reference imagery.
Vertical Positional Accuracy N/A
Lineage Digital imagery was collected at a nominal GSD of 40cm using eight Cessna 441 aircraft and two Beechcraft King Air flying at an average flight height of 5000m above ground level (AGL). All aircraft flew with Leica Geosystem's ADS100/SH100 digital sensors with firmware 4.42. Each sensor collected 12 image bands Red,Green,Blue and Near-infrared at each of three look angles; Backward 19 degrees, Forward 26 degrees and Nadir. The Nadir Green band was collected in high resolution mode effectively doubling the resolution for that band. The ADS100 spectral ranges are: Red 619-651nm,Green 525-585nm,Blue 435-495nm and Near-infrared at 808-882nm. The CCD arrays have a pixel size of 5.0 microns in a 20000x1 format at nadir; a 18000x1 format at the backward look angle and a 16000x1 format at the forward look angle. The CCD's have a dynamic range of 72db and the A/D converters have a resolution of 14bits. The ADS is a push-broom sensor and the ground footprint of the imagery at a nominal GSD of 40cm is approximately 8km wide by the length flightline. The maximum flightline length is limited to approximately 240km. The factory calibrations and IMU alignments for each sensor (Serial Numbers: 10511,10512,10514,10519,10527,10528,10531,10534,10540,10554) were tested and verified by in-situ test flights before the start of the project. The Leica MissionPro Flight Planning Software is used to develop the flight acquisition plans.

Flight acquisition sub blocks are designed first to define the GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) base station logistics, and to break the project up into manageable acquisition units. The flight acquisition sub blocks are designed based on the specified acquisition season, native UTM zone of the DOQQs, flight line length limitations (to ensure sufficient performance of the IMU solution) as well as air traffic restrictions in the area. Once the sub blocks have been delineated they are brought into MissionPro for flight line design. The design parameters used in MissionPro will be 27 to 35% lateral overlap and 40cm resolution. The flight lines have been designed with a north/south orientation. The design takes into account the latitude of the state, which affects line spacing due to convergence as well as the terrain. SRTM elevation data is used in the MissionPro design to ensure the 50cm GSD is achieved over all types of terrain.

The raw data was downloaded from the sensors after each flight using Leica XPro software. The imagery was then georeferenced using the 200Hz GPS/INS data creating an exterior orientation for each scan line (x/y/z/o/p/k). Leica Xpro APM software was used to automatically generate tiepoint measurements between the forward 26 degree, nadir and backward 19 degree look angles for each line and to tie all flight lines together. The resulting point data and exterior orientation data were used to perform a full bundle adjustment using ORIMA software. Blunders were removed, and additional tie points measured in weak areas to ensure a robust solution. Once the point data was clean and point coverage was acceptable, photo-identifiable GPS-surveyed ground control points were introduced into the block adjustment. The bundle adjustment process produces revised exterior orientation data for the sensor with GPS/INS, datum, and sensor calibration errors modeled and removed. Using the revised exterior orientation from the bundle adjustment, orthorectified image strips were created with Xpro software and the June 2015 USGS 10m NED DEM. The Xpro orthorectification software applies an atmospheric-BRDF radiometric correction to the imagery. This correction compensates for atmospheric absorption, solar illumination angle and bi-directional reflectance. The orthorectified strips were then overlaid with each other and the ground control to check accuracy. Once the accuracy of the orthorectified image strips were validated the strips were then imported into Inpho's OrthoVista 6.0.1 package which was used for the final radiometric balance, mosaic, and DOQQ sheet creation. The final DOQQ sheets, with a 300m buffer and a ground pixel resolution of 1 meter were then combined and compressed to create the county wide CCMs.

Section 3 Spatial Data Organization (not used in this metadata)

Section 4 Coordinate System
Horizontal Coordinate Scheme Universal Transverse Mercator
UTM Zone Number 15
Horizontal Datum NAD83
Horizontal Units meters
Cell Width 1
Cell Height 1

Section 5 Attributes
Overview Natural color imagery has 8-bit pixels per band, 3 band RGB represent brightness values 0 - 255.
Detailed Citation None
Table Detail:

Section 6 Distribution
Publisher U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO)
Publication Date 12/2015
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Coordinator
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo)
658 Cedar Street, Room 300
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Fax: 651-296-6398
Distributor's Data Set Identifier NAIP 2015
Distribution Liability 1. FSA Liability Statement: In no event shall the creators, custodians, or distributors of this information be liable for any damages arising out of its use (or the inability to use it).

2. MnGeo's data disclaimer is online:
Ordering Instructions The imagery is available free online by clicking below after Online Linkage. This link will take you to a webpage that contains direct links to:

1. View the files seamlessly via a WMS service without having to download the files. They are available as two separate layers: a natural color version and a color infrared version.

2. Download each county file in MrSID format (natural color only, does not include color infrared Band 4) and accompanying seamline shapefile from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service's Geospatial Data Gateway site:
Online Linkage I AGREE to the notice in "Distribution Liability" above. Clicking to agree will either begin the download process, link to a service, or provide more instructions. See "Ordering Instructions" above for details.

Section 7 Metadata Reference
Metadata Date 03/04/2016
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Coordinator
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo)
658 Cedar Street, Room 300
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Fax: 651-296-6398
Metadata Standard Name Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines
Metadata Standard Version 1.2
Metadata Standard Online Linkage

This page last updated: 03/04/2016
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