National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP), Minnesota, 2017, Digital Orthorectified Images (DOQ)

This page last updated: 03/12/2018
Metadata created using Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines

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1. Overview
2. Data Quality
3. Data Organization
4. Coordinate System
5. Attributes
6. Distribution - Get Data
7. Metadata Reference

Section 1 Overview
Originator U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO)
Title National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP), Minnesota, 2017, Digital Orthorectified Images (DOQ)
Abstract This data set contains 4-band natural color and false color infrared (CIR) imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP program is to enable availability of ortho imagery within one year of acquisition.

The source files are 1 meter ground sample distance (GSD) ortho imagery rectified towithin +/- 4 meters to true ground. The tiling format of NAIP imagery is based on a 3.75' x 3.75' quarter quadrangle with a 300 pixel buffer on all four sides. NAIP imagery is formatted to the UTM coordinate system using the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83). NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.

The county mosaic files downloadable from the USDA NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway (natural color only, does not include CIR Band 4) were generated by compressing NAIP imagery that cover the county extent. MrSID compression was used. Target values for the compression ratio are 15:1.

(Note: The Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo) has created this metadata record to describe the entire NAIP 2017 dataset, using information from Farm Service Agency metadata. Each natural color county file available from the USDA NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway is accompanied by the original FSA metadata for that county.)
Purpose NAIP imagery is typically available for distribution within 60 days of the end of a flying season and is intended to provide current information of agricultural conditions in support of USDA farm programs. For USDA Farm Service Agency, the 1 meter GSD product provides an ortho image base for Common Land Unit boundaries and other data sets. The 1 meter NAIP imagery is generally acquired in projects covering full states in cooperation with state government and other federal agencies who use the imagery for a variety of purposes including land use planning and natural resource assessment. NAIP is also used for disaster response often providing the most current pre-event imagery.
Time Period of Content Date 2017
Currentness Reference Summer and Fall 2017. See the IDATE attribute in the accompanying seamline shapefile for each county to find out the date(s) that the source imagery was acquired. The shapefiles are included with the MrSID county mosaics downloadable from NRCS. All the seamline shapefiles for Minnesota's 87 counties may also be downloaded in one zipfile from MnGeo's website. For more information, see:
Progress Complete
Maintenance and Update Frequency Irregular
Spatial Extent of Data Minnesota
Bounding Coordinates -97.5
Place Keywords Minnesota, MN
Theme Keywords imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, Digital Orthorectified Image, Digital Orthophoto Quad, Ortho, Orthophoto, DOQ, NAIP, Compliance, Air Photo, Air Photography, Aerial Photo, Aerial Photography
Theme Keyword Thesaurus ISO 19115 Topic Category
Access Constraints None
Use Constraints The Aerial Photography Field Office asks to be credited in derived products.

If defects are found in the NAIP imagery during the warranty period such as horizontal offsets, replacement imagery may be provided. Imagery containing defects that require the acquisition of new imagery, such as excessive cloud cover, specular reflectance, etc., will not be replaced within a NAIP project year.

Redistribution conditions: In obtaining this data from MnGeo, it is understood that you and/or your organization have the right to use it for any purpose. If you modify it, you are encouraged to apply responsible best practices by documenting those changes in a metadata record. If you transmit or provide the data to another user, it is your responsibility to provide appropriate content, limitation, warranty and liability information as you see fit.
Contact Person Information ,
USDA-FSA-APFO Aerial Photography Field Office
2222 West 2300 South
Salt Lake City, UT  84119
Phone: 801-844-2922
Fax: 801-956-3653
Browse Graphic Click to view a data sample.
Graphic showing the entire state
Associated Data Sets Shapefiles, with associated metadata, are included with the compressed county mosaic datasets downloadable from the USDA NRCS Geospatial Data Gateway. The shapefiles show seamline polygons delineating the boundary between DOQQ imagery used in the creation of the county NAIP file and attributes such as the source date of the imagery. All the seamline shapefiles for Minnesota's 87 counties may also be downloaded in one zipfile from MnGeo's website. For more information, see:

For information on other air photos available for Minnesota, including other years of NAIP imagery, see

Section 2 Data Quality
Attribute Accuracy NAIP imagery may contain as much as 10% cloud cover per tile.

Imagery shows marked color differences between areas flown at different dates. For example, an area flown during the growing season in August will appear very green; it could be adjacent to an area flown in October after harvest which appears mostly brown. See the preview graphic:
Logical Consistency N/A
Completeness No report
Horizontal Positional Accuracy NAIP Specifications. The quarter-quad files are 1 meter ground sample distance (GSD) ortho imagery rectified within +/- 4 meters to true ground.
Vertical Positional Accuracy N/A
Lineage Flight planning was performed in Leica MissionPro over a buffered boundary covering DOQQ extents provided by the USDA. A 500m reduced resolution DEM file was used to determine ground heights. A targeted flight altitude of approximately 16,000 feet above ground level for acquisition with sidelap of 27% was used for flight planning parameters. Five Cessna Conquests and a Cessna 414 were utilized for acquisition, the seamline shapefile clarifies which aircraft were used for a given area. All aircraft were equipped with Leica ADS100 systems for data capture. The Leica ADS100 pushbroom sensor has been calibrated by the manufacturer as well as validated against a local calibration range. The calibration includes measuring the radiometric and geometric properties of the camera. These data are used in the Post Processing Software to eliminate the radiometric and geometric distortion.

All aerial imagery was collected with associated GPS/IMU data. ADS collection requires high quality IMU data for processing and was critical for early access hosting of digital data to the web for USDA interim access and review. After post processing was complete, all imagery was triangulated using Leica XPro in which the airborne GPS data was constrained to expected limits. To validate the accuracy of the block adjustment derived from GPS/IMU, sensor parameters and conjugate point measurements, photo identifiable ground control points were field surveyed within each State. These points were surveyed using GPS techniques to produce coordinates that are accurate to +/- 0.25 meters RMSE in XYZ. The GPS surveying techniques utilized assured that the coordinates are derived in the required project datum and relative to an approved National Reference System. If the block does not fit the control points within specifications the pass and tie points were reviewed for blunders and weak areas. If, after these corrections were made, the block still does not fit the control well the GPS and IMU processing were reviewed.

Once the block has proper statistics and fits the control to specifications, the final bundle adjustment was made. As AT points are frequently on man-made and other vertical features not included in the DEM, these ortho points can only be used to indicate regions of error by the clusters of points that predict excessive horizontal displacement. The final adjustments assure a high quality relative adjustment and a high quality absolute adjustment limited to the airborne GPS data accuracy. This process assures the final absolute accuracy of all geopositioned imagery. Both signalized and photo identified ground control were used to QC and control the IMU/GPS based aerial triangulation bundle block solution. Surdex Grouping Tool provides real-time updates of the USDA APFO Image Metrics. The image technician adjusts image correction parameters to bring the radiometric characteristics of large groups of images within the Image Metrics ranges. For each project area the highest resolution DEM or LiDAR was obtained and utilized for rectification of captured imagery. A visual inspection of the final DEM using color cycled classification by elevation and a shaded relief was performed to check for gaps, corruption and gross errors. The predicted horizontal error for each point was added as an attribute in the SURDEX enterprise database. An operator reviews ortho seams in areas these predicted errors indicate horizontal error in excess of the contract specifications.

Any imagery errors introduced by source DEM required patching from an alternate perspective or strip of photography. Processing hardware used included various brands of survey grade GPS receivers, various brands and models of computers, calibrated monitors and various brands of monitor calibration colorimeters. Leica XPro was used for post processing of ADS pushbroom data, triangulation and orthorectification. SURDEX software was used to color correct and remove bidirectional reflectance, vignetting and other illumination trends. USDA APFO Image Metrics are measured and images corrected to conform to the Image Metrics using SURDEX software. GPS/IMU data was reduced to projected coordinates in the appropriate UTM zone using Inertial Explorer software from Novatel. Aerial Triangulation and orthorectification was performed using Leica XPro. SURDEX software was used to adjust for minor radiometric variation between adjacent images. SURDEX software was used to calculate the optimal seam path, check seam topology and create master tiles. SURDEX ortho software generates occlusion/smear polygons used during seam review of steep terrain. SURDEX software was used to visually inspect master tiles for seam and image defects. SURDEX software was used to project and cut final DOQQ image files from masters. SURDEX software was used to create CCM metadata. Lizardtech GeoExpress version was used to create the CCM image file. SURDEX software was used to perform final formatting, QC and naming of the DOQQ. USGS metadata parser software was used to validate the metadata. Various versions of Microsoft Windows were used in all phases of production. Grouping Tool was used again after DOQQ and CCM production to provide a quality assurance check. Individual DOQQ and CCM may not meet the USDA APFO Image Metrics ranges due to land cover. The goal is to have the state as a whole meet the Image Metrics. All products are reviewed by independent personnel prior to delivery. The delivery is checked for omissions, commissions, naming, formatting, specification compliance and data integrity.

Section 3 Spatial Data Organization (not used in this metadata)

Section 4 Coordinate System
Horizontal Coordinate Scheme Universal Transverse Mercator
UTM Zone Number 15
Horizontal Datum NAD83
Horizontal Units meters
Cell Width 1
Cell Height 1

Section 5 Attributes
Overview Natural color imagery has 8-bit pixels per band, 3 band RGB represent brightness values 0 - 255.
Detailed Citation None
Table Detail:

Section 6 Distribution
Publisher U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Aerial Photography Field Office (APFO)
Publication Date 12/2017
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Specialist
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo)
658 Cedar Street, Room 300
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Distributor's Data Set Identifier NAIP 2017
Distribution Liability 1. FSA Liability Statement: In no event shall the creators, custodians, or distributors of this information be liable for any damages arising out of its use (or the inability to use it).

2. MnGeo's data disclaimer is online:
Ordering Instructions The imagery is available free online by clicking below after Online Linkage. This link will take you to a webpage that contains direct links to:

1. View the files seamlessly via a WMS service without having to download the files. They are available as two separate layers: a natural color version and a color infrared version.

2. Download each county file in MrSID format (natural color only, does not include color infrared Band 4) and accompanying seamline shapefile from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service's Geospatial Data Gateway site:
The files will be in either UTM zone 14 or 15, depending on which zone covers the majority of the county.
Online Linkage I AGREE to the notice in "Distribution Liability" above. Clicking to agree will either begin the download process, link to a service, or provide more instructions. See "Ordering Instructions" above for details.

Section 7 Metadata Reference
Metadata Date 03/12/2018
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Specialist
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo)
658 Cedar Street, Room 300
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Metadata Standard Name Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines
Metadata Standard Version 1.2
Metadata Standard Online Linkage

This page last updated: 03/12/2018
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