Metadata: GAP Land Cover

GAP Land Cover

This page last updated: 07/13/2018
Metadata created using Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines

Go to Section:
  1. Overview
  2. Data Quality
  3. Data Organization
  4. Coordinate System
  5. Attributes
  6. Distribution - Get Data
  7. Metadata Reference

Section 1: Overview

Originator:Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) - Division of Forestry

Title: GAP Land Cover

Abstract: This raster dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs of early-1990s Landsat 4/5 Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite imagery, as part of the Upper Midwest Gap Analysis Program (UMGAP)( ) of the U.S. Geological Survey. Units of analysis were Minnesota Ecological Classification System (ECS)( ) subsections subdivided by TM scenes. GAP typology and classification protocols are closely comparable across Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan.

Purpose: The dataset was created for use in the Geological Survey's Gap Analysis Program (GAP)( ) , a national project aimed at prioritizing lands for conservation action. Other uses include stratification of inventories, land use planning, and spatial analysis of landscape patterns.

Time Period of Content Date:

Currentness Reference: Analysis and accuracy assessment took place during 1995-2000. Landsat scene dates are shown in red on this linked image: Scene Summary Map

Progress: Complete

Maintenance and Update Frequency: As needed

Spatial Extent of Data: Statewide. Processed by units as shown at the following link: GAP Processing Unit Map

Bounding Coordinates: -96.868130

Place Keywords: Minnesota

Theme Keywords: Land Use, Land Cover, Forest, Vegetation, GAP, ECS Provinces, Sections, Subsections, biota

Theme Keyword Thesaurus: ISO 19115

Access Constraints: None

Use Constraints: Data are unrestricted.

Contact Person Information: Dennis Kepler, Supervisor Resource Assessment Unit
Minnesota DNR - Forestry
483 Peterson Rd
Grand Rapids, MN  55744
Phone: 218-322-2512

Browse Graphic: Click to view a data sample.

Associated Data Sets:

Section 2: Data Quality

Attribute Accuracy: Source table LULC_GAP1ART3.DBF: Minnesota GAP vegetation information is presented at four levels, from the most detailed (Level 4) to the most highly aggregated (Level 1). In each processing unit, accuracy figures have been calculated for every type at each level of the classification hierarchy. Percentage accuracy attributes at all four levels are attached to every data element, as indicated in the Attribute Table. (Types too sparsely represented for accuracy assessment have an accuracy attribute of -1.) Class definitions and accuracy tabulations can be found, along with an explanation of accuracy assessment methods, at the following link: Minnesota GAP Accuracy Assessment

Logical Consistency: Not all cover types exist as mappable units in all ECS subsections of the state. Some types omitted from classification in a given subsection may be classified in an adjacent subsection. This, or other circumstances, may give rise to type mismatches across subsection boundaries.

Completeness: The existing vegetation of the entire state, with emphasis on forests, has been mapped to a single standard by use of closely comparable satellite image sets and a consistent classification protocol. The product closely resembles GAP vegetation coverages in Wisconsin and Michigan.

Horizontal Positional Accuracy: Source layer gap1ara3: All imagery was precision-corrected to digital elevation models of Minnesota by the U.S. Geological Survey's EROS Data Center, Sioux Falls SD, and was analyzed in conjunction with National Wetlands Inventory ( ) and MNDoT Roads datasets. Estimated positional accuracy of the data is plus or minus 1 Landsat TM picture element, or 30 meters.

Vertical Positional Accuracy: Source layer gap1ara3: Not Applicable

Lineage: Attribute Lineage for source table LULC_GAP1ART3.DBF: Early discussion between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and cooperators in a projected Gap Analysis Program covering Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan assumed that the desired vegetation layer would be produced by computer analysis of seven-band, 30-meter Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite images at a minimum mapping acreage of 100 ha (250 ac), and that the classification would be correspondingly coarse--at about the second level of the U.S. Geological Survey land use/cover class system (Anderson et al. 1976). When the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources put forward its WISCLAND classification as an alternative, it was also considered a "Level II" scheme. WISCLAND sought to map land cover across Wisconsin at the 5-acre (2 ha) level of detail by multiseason TM image analysis together with wetlands, topographic and roads data (Lillesand 1993). Later it became clear that a more detailed physiognomic and floristic typology was wanted for GAP (Jennings1993)--at the "community type" level of the UNESCO vegetation class system (Driscoll et al.1984). State remote sensing specialists responded by expanding the WISCLAND scheme to the highest level of vegetational detail they considered mappable from two well-timed scene dates together with ancillary data. The result was the typology used in Minnesota GAP.

Anderson, J.R., E.E. Hardy, J.R. Roach and R.E. Witmer. 1976. A land use and land cover classification system for use with remote sensor data. U.S. Geol. Survey Prof. Paper 964. 28p.

Driscoll, R.S., D.L. Merkel, D.L. Radloff, D.E. Snyder and J. S. Hagihara. 1984. An ecological land classification framework for the United States. USDA For. Serv. Misc. Pub. 1439, Washington DC. 56p.

Jennings, M.D. 1993. Natural terrestrial cover classification: assumptions and definitions. US Fish & Wildlife Service Idaho Coop. Res. Unit, U. of Idaho, Moscow. 28p.

Lillesand, T.M. 1993. Suggested strategies for satellite-assisted statewide land cover mapping in Wisconsin. Pres. pap., Am. Soc. for Photogramm. & Rem. Sens. Annual Meeting, New Orleans. 11p.

Section 3: Spatial Data Organization (not used in this metadata)

Section 4: Coordinate System

Horizontal Coordinate Scheme: Universal Transverse Mercator

UTM Zone Number: 15

Horizontal Datum: NAD83

Horizontal Units: meters

Vertical Datum: not applicable

Vertical Units: Not Applicable

Depth Datum: not applicable

Depth Units: Not Applicable

Cell Width: 30

Cell Height: 30

Section 5: Attributes


Detailed Citation:

Table Detail:
landcover_gap - Raster Attribute Table
Field NameValid ValuesDefinitionDefinition Source
A count of the number of 30-meter pixels in the data set that are associated with the entry in the VALUE column.
GPUenumeratedGAP Processing Unit Number
1Red River Prairie & Aspen Parklands
2Agassiz Lowlands West
3Agassiz Lowland East
4Border Lakes West
5Border Lakes East
6Hardwood Hills North
7Chippewa Plains West
8Chippewa Plains East
9St. Louis Moraines
10Nashwauk Uplands
11Tamarack Lowlands North
12Laurentian Uplands
13North Shore Highlands
14Red River Prairie - Mid
15Pine Moraines & Outwash Plains
16Tamarack Lowlands South
17Red River Prairie & Hardwood Hills
18Hardwood Hills South
19Mille Lacs Uplands & Glacial Lake Superior Plain
20Anoka Sand Plain
21Minnesota River Prairie & Coteau Moraines
22Minnesota River Prairie - Mid
23Big Woods & St. Paul Baldwin Plains and Moraines
24Inner Coteau & Coteau Moraines
25Minnesota River Prairie - South
26Oak Savanna & Rochester Plateau
GAPLVL4IDenumeratedMinnesota GAP classification level 4 land-use/land-cover class code. Level 4 is the most detailed level of the classification.
2High Intensity Urban
3Low Intensity Urban
9Upland Shrub
10Lowland Deciduous Shrub
11Lowland Evergreen Shrub
13Floating Aquatic
15Broadleaf Sedge/Cattail
16Jack Pine
17Red/White Pine
18Red Pine
19White Pine mix
20Balsam Fir mix
21White Spruce
22Upland Black Spruce
23Upland Northern White Cedar
25Upland Conifer
26Lowland Black Spruce
27Stagnant Black Spruce
29Stagnant Tamarack
30Lowland Northern White-Cedar
31Stagnant Norhern White-Cedar
32Stagnant Conifer
33Aspen/White Birch
35Bur/White Oak
36Red Oak
37Northern Pin Oak
39Upland Deciduous
40Black Ash
41Silver Maple
43Lowland Deciduous
44Upland Coniferous-Deciduous mix
45Jack Pine-Deciduous mix
46Red/White Pine-Deciduous mix
47Spruce/Fir-Deciduous mix
48Redcedar-Deciduous mix
49Lowland Conifer-Decidious mix
Level 4 percent accuracy score for this land-use/land-cover class (see GAPLVL4ID) in this processing unit (see GPU).
Minnesota GAP classification level 4 land-use/land-cover class name.
GAPLVL3IDenumeratedMinnesota GAP classification level 3 land-use/land-cover class code.
54Upland Shrub
55Lowland Shrub
60Upland Cedar
61Upland Conifer
62Lowland Black Spruce
64Lowland Northern White-Cedar
65Stagnant Conifer
66Aspen/White Birch
69Upland Deciduous
70Black Ash
71Silver Maple
73Lowland Deciduous
74Upland Conifer-Deciduous mix
75Pine-Decidious mix
76Spruce/Fir-Deciduous mix
77Redcedar-Deciduous mix
78Lowland Conifer-Deciduous mix
Level 3 percent accuracy score for this land-use/land-cover class (see GAPLVL3ID) in this processing unit (see GPU).
Minnesota GAP classification level 3 land-use/land-cover class name.
GAPLVL2IDenumeratedMinnesota GAP classification level 2 land-use/land-cover class code.
83Aquatic Environments
84Upland Conifer Forest
85Lowland Conifer Forest
86Upland Deciduous Forest
87Lowland Deciduous Forest
88Upland Conifer-Deciduous mix
89Lowland Conifer-Deciduous mix
Level 2 percent accuracy score for this land-use/land-cover class (see GAPLVL2ID) in this processing unit (see GPU).
Minnesota GAP classification level 2 land-use/land-cover class name.
GAPLVL1IDenumeratedMinnesota GAP classification level 1 land-use/land-cover class code.
91Conifer Forest
92Deciduous Forest
93Conifer/Deciduous mix
Level 1 percent accuracy score for this land-use/land-cover class (see GAPLVL1ID) in this processing unit (see GPU).
Minnesota GAP classification level 1 land-use/land-cover class name.
Concatonation of GAP processing unit code and GAP level 4 vegetation classification code. This column provides the basis for assigning accuracy assessment information to each pixel.

Section 6: Distribution

Publisher: Minnesota DNR - Division of Forestry

Publication Date: 2002-06-06 00:00:00.0

Contact Person Information: Zeb Thomas, GIS Data Systems Coordinator
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources
500 Lafayette Rd
Saint Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-259-5637

Distributor's Data Set Identifier: biota_landcover_gap

Distribution Liability: The Minnesota Department of Natural Resources General Geographic Data License Agreement is online:

Ordering Instructions: Please visit the download page for this dataset on the Minnesota Geospatial Commons website using the web link below (Online Linkage).

Online Linkage: I AGREE to the notice in "Distribution Liability" above. Clicking to agree will either begin the download process, link to a service, or provide more instructions. See "Ordering Instructions" above for details.

Section 7: Metadata Reference

Metadata Date: 07/13/2018

Contact Person Information: Jennifer Corcoran, Remote Sensing Program Consultant
Minnesota DNR - Forestry, Resource Assessment
500 Lafayette Rd
Saint Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-259-5898

Metadata Standard Name: Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines

Metadata Standard Version: 1.2

This page last updated: 07/13/2018
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